The Israeli Occupation of Syria: What US Media Hides

by Wendy Campbell

 

 

July 25, 2005

The inspiration for this article came to me after reading an article about Syria that was forwarded to me by a well-meaning, but somewhat naive, fellow pro-Palestinian peace activist. He thought it was "interesting". Unfortunately, he wasn't able to decipher the actual meaning and thrust behind the article. Unfortunately, this is the case with most Americans.

I read the article earnestly hoping for perhaps some new insight, as it was titled "The Enigma of Damascus", a city in Syria which I have journeyed to in 2004. I also produced a documentary entitled "Syria: Land of Friendly People and Hidden Treasure" based on my trip there which I market on my website www.marwenmedia.com.

I had no idea as to the background of the writer, so I read it with an open mind.

As I read it, I started to become vaguely annoyed. By the time I was finished, I was in an acute state of annoyance.

Hence, I am moved to write yet another article exposing what passes for journalism in the US media, but what is actually hate-and-war-mongering Neo-Conservative propaganda written with the express purpose of manipulating and preparing the US public opinion to go along with its aggressive agenda of forcing regime-change on any country that they deem is an enemy of Israel.

Let's face it: the government must have the support of the majority of the American people or else it's not a democracy. Unfortunately for American people, the media is largely embedded in the government, and currently serves as the propaganda arm of our government which is now being directed by Israel-firster Neo-Conservatives and both Jewish and Christian Zionists. Greedy politicians who are involved with corporations that benefit hugely from war profits are more than happy to go along with the killing spree in the Middle East, using words such as "democracy", "regime-change" and "liberation" to falsely represent their true motives, which are complete subjugation, domination and exploitation of those countries' resources and culture.

Note: If these people cared so much about freedom and liberation, where is their action on support of Tibetans? Could it be that Tibet is not a enemy of Israel, as are Israel's neighbors? Could it be that there is not even any oil in Tibet? Where is such deep concern about Ethiopians? Ugandans, anyone?

The article "The Enigmas of Damascus" was written by a certain James Bennet. He is obviously a Neo-Conservative and most likely a Zionist Jewish one at that. It turns out that this article was first published by the New York Times. You can find this article by googling the title of the article and the author or at http://www.natashatynes.org/newwire/2005/07/the_enigma_of_d.html#more

"REGIME-CHANGE" IS NEO-CON CODE WORD FOR ALL-OUT WAR

I will now dissect and interpret Bennet's article for those who are not aware of the Zionist Jewish modus operandi including: use of code words (such as "regime-change" when they mean all-out bloody war), their deliberate omissions of pertinent facts, while at the same time cherry-picking talking heads whom Zionists want to push into the limelight since they support the Zionist agenda: Zionist domination of the Middle East and perhaps more than that, generally using American resources to do so, as in an endless costly and deadly "war on terror", that is not necessary to the security or best interests of most Americans.

He slyly and misleadingly puts "the Bush administration, many European leaders and many reform-minded Syrians" all in one basket for instance. AS IF any reform-minded Syrians (except for the few Zionist neoconservative Jewish Syrians there) would ever want the kind of "regime-change" that Bush has in mind for Syria, such as the "regime-change" that is taking place in Iraq. By the way, in case you haven't figured it out by now, the phrase "regime-change" is a Zionist/Neo-Conservative codeword for WAR. BLOODY WAR.

Reform-minded = Regime-change = WAR. Paid for with US tax dollars for Israel's "security" and imperialistic ambitions.

MAJORITY OF SYRIANS APPROVE OF THEIR LEADER

As I wrote in another article about Syria ("Let's Get Clear About Syria", www.marwenmedia.com), the group leader for our tour of Syria, an American Christian Scientist, told me that if there were to be a democratic election in Syria, that Bashar Assad, the current leader of Syria, would probably win by about 70% of the vote. Our Syrian Greek Orthodox guide agreed. In fact, everywhere we went in Syria, from city apartments and informal business luncheons to Bedouin and Kurdish adobe homes in the countryside, the people we spoke to seemed genuinely positive, even glowing, in their praise of Bashar Assad. These were not cherry-picked people either, since sometimes we stopped by the side of the road at some village and got ourselves invited in for tea with people spontaneously.

I even asked our Syrian guide if it was mandatory that everyone have a portrait of Bashar Assad in their homes, and he said no. He reminded me of how he didn't have one in his home, where we had previously had some tea with his family. Indeed, this was true.

So Mr. Bennet's observation that Mr. and Mrs. Bashar Assad "seemed the essence of secular Western-Arab fusion" is accurate, not a "mirage" as he asserted.

Bennet claims that Assad's "empty promises, nasty oratory and bloody tactics has turned them (the Bush administration, meaning the Neo-conservatives) against the Syrian regime."

Talk about the height of hypocrisy and obfuscation of the truth of the matter!

How ironic!

The fact of the matter is that Neo-conservatives in the US primarily represent the interests of Zionist Israel, which has long been known for empty promises, nasty (and very racist) oratory against Palestinians as well as the entire Arab and Muslim world, along with bloody tactics!

This is what has turned the entire Arab and Muslim world, along with most of the rest of the world, against America! This is "why they hate us". And actually, it's really the hateful US foreign policy that they hate. Can you blame them? Fair-minded humanitarians, including many Americans, hate it as well. It's really about stopping the hateful evil-doers: the actual liars, thieves and murderers, and those who actively enable them, such as some of those in the US government and media. It's about stopping the hate-crimes our government and media has been enabling Israel to commit against the Palestinians, for instance.

Since day one of its creation in 1948, Israel has always been aggressive and belligerent against the indigenous non-Jewish Palestinians in Palestine-Israel, as well as against all its neighboring countries of Syria, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and beyond. Most Americans have been shielded by the US media from learning this fact that Israel has always been the original colonialist aggressor in the area of the Middle East. But as long as Israel continues its aggression against and persecution of the indigenous non-Jewish people of the Middle East, there will likely be endless war, involving the entire world.

Bennet rightly asserts that "Since Saddam Hussein's rule ended in Iraq, no other Arab government has come in for as much pressure and disdain from the Bush administration" however Bennet never makes a clear case for why that is. I'll tell you why that is: it's because Syria refuses to let itself be run over by Zionist Israel and its puppet benefactor the Zionized USA. And why should it? Would any self-respecting people or country?

ISRAEL STILL OCCUPIES SYRIA'S GOLAN HEIGHTS, SINCE 1967

A very important fact that Bennet only vaguely referred to is that Israel has been occupying part of Syria, specifically the Golan Heights since 1967! And believe me, the Syrians have been boiling about that ever since. Yet somehow the US media, including Bennet in this very New York Times article, treats this as basically a complete non-issue! It is rarely mentioned in the US media, and when it is, it is not clarified or emphasized for the average American to grasp the full meaning of it.

Contrast the non-coverage of the Isareli occupation of Syria with the whole lotta coverage that the US media and US government spotlighted on the Syrian troops that were stationed in Lebanon! And by the way, the Syrian troops in Lebanon had many supporters there! It is generally believed by those in the peace movement (the sincere, anti-Zionists especially) that CIA and Mossad agents actively stirred up trouble in Lebanon with regards to the Syrian troops there, and therefore we witnessed the spectacle fully covered in embedded-with-the-US-government US media of the massive dueling rallies, of which many were approximately equally supportive of Syrian troops in Lebanon.

The US government pressured the Syrian government to remove their troops there, and the Syrian government did so, in a timely manner, unlike Israel which the US never seems to exert any real pressure on to conform with international laws. Israel has defied over 70 UN Resolutions, and in comparison, Iraq had defied 17 before the US war on Iraq. It goes to show the complete bias that the Zionized US demonstrates towards Israel.

The Syrian government has clearly demonstrated that it is willing to cooperate with the US on many issues, but what exactly does the US want from Syria? It seems as if they want Syria to fall in step with whatever Israel wants, and that is tantamount to allowing Israel to continue to continue to steal Syrian land for a "Greater Israel", a stated goal of many Zionist Jews.

If Israel really wants to be on friendly terms with Syria, Israel must take the first step and withdraw from Syria's Golan Heights. That is truly what is needed. Otherwise, why should Syria cooperate? Syria is thus placed in a catch-22 situation. Damned if they do and damned if they don't. This is the unfair way in which Israel and the Zionized USA behaves, and the world is taking notice. No wonder the US and Israel rank as the number one threat to peace in the world according to international polls.

Getting back to the Israeli occupation of Syrian land, Israel finally has had to relinquish to Lebanon the Lebanese territory Israel captured in 1967, and also Israel had to give back the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.

When is the US going to pressure Israel to give Syria back its Golan Heights?

It's obviously a non-issue to the Neo-conservatives who are in charge of the Bush Administration, and it's obviously a non-issue to the New York Times and all the rest of the Zionized US media.

Just to show you how much of a non-issue Bennet prefers to keep it, I'll quote his ONE SENTENCE referring to this VERY IMPORTANT ISSUE to the Syrians:

"He (Bashar Assad) came into power after talks collapsed in 2000 over the return to Syria of the Golan Heights, which Israel occupied in 1967, in the Six-Day War."

That's IT!

Look at how he does not provide any details about the history of the Six-Day War in 1967. Look at even his misleading use of language to describe the situation: "Israel occupied", as in past tense, instead of what he should have written, that "Israel has been occupying" to indicate that this is STILL AN ON-GOING ISSUE and the Syrians are understandly quite angry about this.

Look at how Bennet did not bother to put the current events in any frame of reference or context to enable the average American reader to understand the current situation Syria finds itself in. This is not by accident either. The Zionized US media has been covering for Israel for decades, to keep anything that could be construed as negative press about Israel away from non-Jewish American eyes and minds.

You can bet your bottom dollar that Jews, especially politicized Zionist Jews, know about all of this, at least from the Zionist point of view. Because it's the history of Israel, which is their primary concern with regards to politics. You can learn a lot by reading Jewish newspapers and websites. They cover many issues that they prefer non-Jewish Americans to remain ignorant about. This is why, as the saying goes: "Knowledge is power." This is also why they have an advantage over non-Jewish Americans. How can non-Jewish Americans take a stand on issues when they don't even know anything about them except for the smooth propaganda they read in the Zionized US media?

The fact is that the Zionized US media is purposefully putting blind-folders on the eyes of the American public, as well as earplugs in their ears! There is a Zionist filter put on any news that comes through the US media. Americans see no evil and hear no evil about Israel and Zionism. They are in a state of blissful ignorance. That is until there's the ugly wake-up call of war and terror and terror and war. What is the real difference anyway? War is "kosher" terror. The results are the same: thousands of dead people, many of them blissfully ignorant until the bloody end, ruined cities, ruined lives, and no end in sight, because the basic issues of International Laws and justice are not being applied equally to all countries.

THE TRUTH ABOUT ISRAEL'S AGGRESSION IN THE 1967 SIX-DAY WAR

For example, how many Americans know the truth, or ANYTHING, about the 1967 Six-Day War?

This is when Israel, armed to the teeth (after all, it has the 4th largest army in the world even though the country is about the size of New Jersey!) preemptively waged war on all of its neighboring countries including Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria.

In fact, it was such a secretive, preemptive attack that Israeli jets and naval boats relentlessly attacked the hapless USS Liberty, even though it was clearly marked as an American vessel and informed the Israeli jet pilots of such. Israel simply did not want anyone interfering or witnessing its illegal aggression against its neighbors.

Israel's air force completely obliterated Egypt's entire fleet of military jets while they were parked on the tarmac! This was and still is all completely illegal according to International Law.

The sad tale of the USS Liberty, a lightly armed reconnaissance naval vessel that was innocently in the wrong place at the wrong time, has been willfully hushed up for years by our government as well as our media, indicating that Israel's interests rank even higher than American interests. Israel has never been brought to justice for its crimes against humanity, which are many, including this bloody incident. This shocking betrayal is movingly revealed by the survivors of the USS Liberty in "The USS Liberty Survivors: Our Story" available at http:// www.marwenmedia.com. According to these American eye witnesses, Israeli jet fighters and boats relentlessly attacked the USS Liberty for 75 minutes, killing 34 American men and wounding 172 more.

The Israelis were hoping to sink it and then blame it on Egyptian Arabs. Today the Israelis claim it was a "tragic accident" although all evidence points to the contrary.

In that illegal war, the Israelis stole even more Palestinian land (which they are still continuing to steal up to this very moment in time), as well as the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt (has been returned to Egypt), the Golan Heights from Syria (still under Israeli occupation) and southern parts of Lebanon (has been returned to Lebanon).

It is called the Six-Day War because that's about how long it lasted, since it was a preemptive war and the Arab countries were completely caught off-guard. More about this and "The Origin of the Palestine-Israel Conflict" can be found at http://www.cactus48.com.

THEN THERE WAS THE YOM KIPPUR WAR IN 1973

In 1973, Egypt retaliated with a preemptive war against Israel in a bid to reclaim the Sinai Peninsula back from Israel. This war is known as the Yom Kippur War since it happened during the most important Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur in October of 1973. Egypt was getting very close to winning this war against Israel, but at the last hour, Jewish Israeli-Americans Henry Kissinger and Golda Meir, who was the Israeli prime minister at the time, persuaded the US government to intervene and save Israel from defeat, which is what happened.

In a non-violent retaliation against US intervention on behalf of Israel and to show solidarity with Egypt, the Arab countries of OPEC tightened the oil spigots and therefore Americans were forced to endure long lines at the gas stations. In fact, one could only get gas every other day depending on whether the last number on your license plate was even or odd. So gas was actually rationed at that time! Obviously that caused a lot of stress to a lot of Americans as I well recall. The Israeli connection to this politically induced "oil crisis" is something the US mainstream media has consistently hid for decades up to this moment in time. The reason for this is that the Zionized US media always hides any negative impact that US support for Israel has on the American people.

The US media wants to make sure that Americans continue to blindly support our government's unconditional support for Israel. Please read my article "The Secret Relationship Between Oil and Israel: What the US Media Hides" at http://www.marwenmedia.com for more information on this.

Which brings me back to the subject of this particular article: the mainstream US media's cover-up of Israel's continuous, belligerent occupation of Syria's Golan Heights since 1967.

NOW THERE IS ENDLESS WAR

In case you haven't noticed, Israel's "war on terror" has somehow become America's "war on terror".

This is what happens when the truth is not confronted, when human rights are being trampled on, and when some countries are allowed to play by their own rules rather than by International Law.

It's now time for Americans to demand that our government learns to "JUST SAY NO" to Israel.

No more double standards. No more diplomatic cover. No more support of any kind. No more US tax-payers' money. Israel receives over $4 billion dollars every year of our tax dollars in "loan guarantees" which means Israel never has to and, thus far, never has paid the loans back. No, instead of paying anything back, Israel often asks for much more and receives many billions of dollars on top of the yearly $4 billion. And that doesn't even include the over $200 billion that we've paid so far for the unjust and unnecessary war on Iraq. No more US tax dollars for apartheid Israel. No more US support for Zionism (Jewish supremacism). No more nada nada!

In fact, I do believe it's time to place sanctions on Israel unless Israel obeys international laws and transforms into a true secular society with completely equal rights for all, including the right to return of all the Palestinian refugees, as it is their right according to US resolutions and International Law. Israel must also be forced to pay reparations to the Palestinians.

In the meantime, our best strategy to end this endless war is to continue to educate ourselves and each other using reliable resources (NOT the New York Times or any other Zionized US mainstream media, but rather from anti-war, anti-lies websites) and to spread the word of Truth and justice for all.

ABOUT THE BAATH PARTY

Basically, the Baath party is a secular, socialist pan-Arabic party that endeavors to unite the Arab countries in manner similar to the European Union for basically the same reasons. It's as simple as that. However, Israel, the rogue Jewish supremacist state which still has not officially established borders for itself, is opposed to this aggregation of Arab power. Yet Israel continues with the aid of "our" US government to act out its aggressively imperialistic ambitions to establish Zionist hegemony in the Middle East. This has been Israel's pattern since day one of its creation in 1948.

It's funny how Bennet asserted that "the ideology of the Arab Socialist Baath Party Š less a vehicle for political participation than a far-reaching instrument of state control Š pulls at the economy, politics and society." One could certainly say that Zionism, the dominating political offshoot of contemporary Judaism, is certainly a much further-reaching instrument of international control, especially in influencing the US government's foreign policy in the Middle East. Talk about far-reaching! This is involving the entire world!

And isn't it funny how Bennet told Assad that there is a debate in Washington over whether he (Assad) was in control of his government, when many in the US and indeed the entire world wonder if Bush is in control of his government or is it the Neocons? Bennet also had the nerve to question Assad's wife about political prisoners, implying that Syria's record is any worse than the US or Israel. Israel has imprisoned and detained over 7,000 Palestinians, arbitrarily, because it can. Who ever tries to stop Israel's persecution of the Palestinian people? Certainly not the United States. And what of the laws in Canada and certain European countries where simply questioning certain aspects of The Holocaust lore put forth by Zionist Jews is punishable by fines and imprisonment? Just do a google-search on Ernst Zundel for one example. Oh, and what about the Abu Ghraib prison scandal?

Bennet's assertion that "The poverty is stark" is not warranted in my opinion. While many of the Syrian people, especially in the rural areas, live primitively compared to Western standards, they none-the-less seemed quite well-fed, well-clothed and generally happy. "Stark" is really stretching it. Parts of Syria remind me of Mexico, however, Syria is no Ethiopia. Now THAT poverty is stark!

Bennet put an approving spotlight on the Syrian film-maker Omar Amiralay, who apparently made a documentary critical of the Baath Party. Even if it is banned in Syria, so is the documentary "Jenin, Jenin" banned in Israel, a country which claims to be a democracy, when clearly it is not. At least Syria does not claim to be what it is not. In fact, the producer of "Jenin, Jenin" Iyad Samudi was shot dead by Israeli soldiers on June 23, 2002, as he returned home after completing the film. Many Arabs believe that the Amiralay is working as part of a Zionist conspiracy to undermine Syria's future as an Arab country, and from what I have read about him on the internet, I can see why. As background on Amiralay, Bennet wrote that "he came to politics after the Arab defeat in 1967", without explaining any further than that or even explaining that the Arabs were defeated by the Israelis in a preemptive war. He also said Amiralay was a Marxist, and that is a predominantly Jewish movement.

At any rate there are always those who question the status quo for whatever their reason. That does not necessarily make them spokespeople for the majority of a population in reality. But journalists and government agents likewise cherry-pick their information to push their own covert agenda to create a new "reality", as in this "war on terror", which it turns out launched largely because of the lies of cherry-picked liars. There were no WMD. There was no connection between Saddam Hussein and al Qeda and bin Laden. Iraq was not a threat to American security. As far as the oil "red herring", the US gets more oil from Canada and Mexico than anywhere, AND we can certainly honorably pay for it from wherever we get it AND without spending over $200 billion on an unjust war.

Getting back to the anti-Baath Party film-maker Amiralay, he could actually be a Jewish Syrian, of which there are quite a few in Damascus, and I understand that they live quite well there as an elite group in Syria. He could even have been brought up Muslim but obviously, he has been Zionized. Syria's population is predominantly Muslim but there is also a fairly large minority of Christians there as well. From what I could see, they all lived together quite harmoniously. In general, Syrians seemed to be very easy-going, open and tolerant. We even patronized a Jewish man's antique shop, whose neighboring store-owners were Muslim and Christian.

Another cherry-picked Syrian whom Bennet chose to spotlight in order to promote his own views was a man named Ammar Abdulhamid who (surprise!) had a fellowship at the very pro-Israel think-tank, the Brookings Institution, who called the Baathists "idiots" and "morons" claiming "they all want a leader or a messiah." Yeah, well who doesn't? I suppose only anarchists don't! This rather confused individual Ammar Abdulhamid said he did not advocate "bloody revolution" but that "the civil strife accompanying regime change in Iraq might be the only way forward in the region." and that "Hopefully, this baptism by blood and mayhem will teach us to cherish the liberties." Sounds like Neo-con gobbledy-gook to me! By the way, doesn't "baptism by blood and mayhem" sound a lot like "bloody revolution"? This is typical of Zionist and Zionist-sympathizer double-speak.

And this guy Bennet also quoted some old hate-filled petition written in 1936 supposedly by Alawite Muslims, a Christianized sect of Islam, which another Neo-con-leaning writer by the name of Joshua Landis is using in an upcoming book about Syria. "The spirit of hatred and fanaticism imbedded in the hearts of the Arab Muslims against everything that is non-Muslim has been perpetually nurtured by the Islamic religion." This is so opposite from what I have experienced in my experiences and discussions with Muslims and Christians in Syria, and outside of Syria for that matter. Obviously, this is just another sly way of pushing someone else's hate-mongering to, in turn, inspire more "kosher" hate to serve their own hateful agenda. This is a typical Zionist ploy which guarantees a self-perpetuating vicious circle with often bloody results as in WAR. No wonder Americans who read the New York Times get so confused!

SUMMARY: DON'T EVEN BOTHER READING THE NEW YORK TIMES, ETC.

Why subject yourself to the mesmerizing, insidiously toxic Zionized media such as the New York Times? They are often so slick and smooth that you donÕt even realize that you're being lulled into passively going along with their position. You can easily get so muddled and confused in your mind as a result of their manipulations and omissions of pertinent contextual facts that you find yourself being bogged down in inertia and apathy. That's the least of what their brand of news will do to you. If you don't watch out, you may even start agreeing with them! You might find yourself saying, "Yeah, those poor people of Iraq really needed to be liberated from that monstrous dictator Saddam Hussein!" Of course, the New York Times and the rest of Zionized US media don't make it clear that most Iraqis had it better off under Saddam Hussein than they do now, especially since over a 100,000 Iraqis have died, since some of their ancient cities have been leveled to the ground, since their priceless artifacts have been looted from museums, since their cities now lack the basic infrastructure which would allow them to carry on with their normal lives, since there's an all-out civil war going on now, and of course now their land is being occupied by a rapacious foreign power, the overtly Zionized USA.

And by the way, are you aware of the fact that Neo-Conservatives in the US, who are American Jews, who are Israeli-Americans, are attempting to negotiate re-opening the oil pipe-line from Iraq to Haifa in Israel (formerly Palestine) trying to pass it off as a "bonus" to Israel since it "supported" the US war on Iraq? Ha! What a joke! Israel was carefully left off the list of countries that was part of our official "coalition" of countries actually aiding in fighting the war! And most of those countries were bribed or brow-beaten and threatened to join the so-called coalition! Israel, with the fourth strongest military in the world, didnÕt even have to get its hands dirty! They "let" everyone else fight the war for them! And now Israel wants a "bonus"?! Especially when the war on Iraq is mainly for Israel's "security" (as all the politicians who addressed AIPAC's big conference this year openly revealed)! Talk about chutzpah!

And did you know that the defunct pipeline from Iraq to Haifa was closed back in 1948 when Palestine became Israel, and then it was diverted to Syria?

Are you beginning to connect the dots yet?

Just do a google-search on a combination of keywords such as "Haifa Iraq oil pipe-line" and read more about it.

The Jewish newspapers covered this story quite well, but US mainstream media carefully hides this pertinent information from the non-Jewish American public, since they know it might not sit too well with them. Americans might realize that the cost of supporting Israel is astronomical and not worth it. Americans might begin to not only question their government's enormous, unconditional support for Israel, but even call for an end to it.

A recent poll on CNN.com by Lou Dobbs indicates just that. When asked if the US government should give an extra $2.2 billion to help Israel re-locate Jewish settlers in the Gaza Strip which is Palestinian Territory, 94% said NO, and only 6% said yes.

And by the way, how many Americans know about the fact that Syria is NOT an oil-exporting country? In fact Syria has to supplement its domestic oil supply with foreign oil. Therefore, forget about the baseless assertion by some, who'd rather overlook the obvious Israeli connection, that the "war on terror" and Iraq is really only about oil.

I could go on to further dissect and deconstruct New York Times writer James Bennet's article entitled "The Enigma of Damascus" but I hope you get the idea.

Isn't it amazing that in this article that prints out to be 13 pages long, Mr. Bennet never clarifies the fact that Syrians hotly resent Israeli occupation of its land, the Golan Heights, since the 1967 Six Day War? And that he doesn't provide the readers with the contextual history of the events involving Israel's preemptive 1967 war on its neighboring countries?

Do you ever wonder why sometimes you get a dull headache reading after such muddy commentary, so that you have no energy to check the facts yourself?

None of this is by accident.

Do yourself a favor. Find out the Truth. Seek the Truth independent of Zionized media which is meant to manipulate and anesthetize your mind into an obedient stupor. Get yourself beyond "comfortably numb" and connect with Truth and Justice and real democratic news, which you can find on the internet, with more and more Americans stepping up to the plate to create news that is worthy of your attention and empowers you to take correct action for the benefit of all humankind.



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